What is Communism?
This is an economic and political movement or doctrine that operates with the main aim of replacing private profit-centered property ownership.it is a theory that advocates for the elimination of private ownership of property. This principle is based on a system in which property and goods are owned in common, and are available to all as needed. This principle aims to ensure communal control of most important and essential resources of the society. It is socialist revolutionists’ movement aimed to create a stateless and classless social, economic and political order. Communism is derived from the word “communis” which is a Latin word that means shared and belong to all. This theory is focused in ensuring an oppression free society united and where there is neither alienation nor division.
Why was communism a threat to capitalist democracies?
Communism was not by itself a threat of capitalist democracies. It was rather the communists’ dictators who encouraged a corrupted and perverted form of the communist ideology. Communism is not necessarily anti democracy, but it is not possible of communism and capitalism to coexist. The reason as why communism was seen as a threat to capitalism was because capitalism fell to communism. Also democracies resulted into the emergence of authoritarian oppression rule which undermined the rights and esteem of individuals. The reason as to why communism was considered as a threat to capitalist is that real communism failed to prosper almost everywhere. The communist’s leaders in China for instance held a monopoly in political power. Decisions which were critical to the nation were made by few elite leaders who were basically chosen from the communist party. This was by itself a hindrance and a threat to capitalists’ democracy.
Comparing the two different ideologies in the economy: Communist (Marxist economy) and Democratic (Capitalist Economy), the communist movement had no guarantee of political or civil rights, dissent against the communists government and party were suppressed and not allowed to thrive. Whereas in democratic economies, the individuals guaranteed political and civil rights comprising even the dissent and discontentment in the government. It was the communist party’s sole responsibility to rule with an iron scepter of democratic dictatorship; whereas in democratic economy multiple and different parties compete in free and fair elections to rule. In communism, the individuals in power dictated the laws and the decisions and judgments of the judiciary, this was a threat to democratic capitalist economy where the competitively elected leaders had to obey and adhere to the law and court orders.
What was the Cold War?
Cold War was a state of military rivalry and political tension that existed between nations and states that stopped short of full-scale war. Cold war was a state of tension and rivalry between two groups, individuals or factions that stops short of violent, open confrontation. Cold war also referred to the military tension and political hostility between the two power blocs or countries. The war involved subversion, propaganda, economic sanctions, and threats amongst other measures and activities short of violent and open warfare. The war was especially between Soviet and America blocs that existed immediately after the Second World War. The war also involved technological, political, sociological, economic, psychological, military and paramilitary measures that only fell short of evident armed conflict between the rival parties. The cold war existed from 1945 until 1990 and was based on a state of deep-seated ill-will enmity and antagonism that did not witness actual and open violent fighting between the warring parties.
Two main adversaries in Cold War
The two main adversaries in the cold war included: the United States of America (USA) and the Soviet Union (USSR). During the period of the cold war, the Soviet Union and the United States each believed it was vitally important to stop the other rival from extending its power.
How was this war “fought?”
Cold war was a struggle between USA and the Soviet Union. The war was fought using conventional tactics and weapons in Korea and Vietnam. It was rather economic, diplomatic war tactics fought through submarines, spy satellites, spy ships, land spies, spy planes, television, radio, movies, and newspapers. Some of the tactics included:
Propaganda: - The cold war witnessed the rival parties use propaganda to try to fight and win the other party. The propaganda messages were majorly broadcasted and circulated through radio programs, television and other media publications like newspapers.
Foreign Aid: - Both the USA and USSR tried as much as possible to fight the war and win more allies to their side by giving financial support, grants and aids to other states and nations. For example the Soviet Union gave financial aid to Egypt to help in the building of the Aswan High Dam.
Brinkmanship: - This included strategies and political mechanisms deployed by the brinkmanship policy which meant advancing to the brink of the war zones to cause the rival group to back down for example the Cuban Missile Crisis.
Surrogate Wars: - This refers to the substitute wars. Although the Soviet Union and USA did not directly at each other, they indirectly fought by backing the opposing sides in several conflicts. For example the Cuban Revolution, Korean conflict, Chinese Revolution, Vietnam War, and the conflict in Iran among others.
Espionage: - This included fear that existed with the rival groups that the other group might gain advantage over the other party.
Multi Alliances: - Both the USA and USSR purposed to enter into alliances with other nations in order to gain their support so as to win the other party.